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ubuntu网络设置详解

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  • ubuntu网络设置详解
  • 发布时间:2010-03-10 12:00:05    浏览数:7261    发布者:sunhw0725    设置字体【   
# 根据网上资料整理

  # 方式1和方式4已验证

  # anything the matter, please contact: [email]asksamuel@sina.com[/email]

  目录

  方式1:网卡通过DHCP自动获取IP地址

  方式2:网卡静态分配IP地址

  方式3:PPPoE宽带拨号配置

  方式4:通过无线局域网接入互联网

  方式1:网卡通过DHCP自动获取IP地址

  $ sudo gedit /etc/network/interfaces

  # 修改文件/etc/network/interfaces如下文

  #-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  # This file describes the network interfaces available on your system

  # and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

  #

  # The loopback network interface(配置环回口)

  auto lo # 开机自动激lo接口

  iface lo inet loopback # 配置lo接口为环回口

  # The primary network interface (配置主网络接口)

  auto eth0 #开机自动激活eth0接口

  iface eth0 inet dhcp #配置eth0接口为DHCP自动获取

  #-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  $ sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart # 重启网络

  方式2:网卡静态分配IP地址

  $ sudo gedit /etc/network/interfaces

  # 修改文件/etc/network/interfaces如下文

  #-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  # This file describes the network interfaces available on your system

  # and how to activate them. For more information, see interfaces(5).

  #

  # The loopback network interface(配置环回口)

  auto lo # 开机自动激lo接口

  iface lo inet loopback # 配置lo接口为环回口

  # The primary network interface (配置主网络接口)

  auto eth0 #开机自动激活eth0接口

  iface eth0 inet static #配置eth0接口为静态设置IP地址

  address 10.16.3.99

  netmask 255.255.255.0

  network 10.16.3.0

  broadcast 10.16.3.255

  gateway 10.16.3.1

  ####################################################

  ## dns-* options are implemented by the resolvconf package, if installed(DNS设置)

  #dns-nameservers 61.153.177.196 61.153.177.197

  #dns-search fireteam.org

  ####################################################

  #sudo gedit /etc/resolv.conf

  ##设置DNS server(可以设置多个)

  #nameserver 192.168.1.1

  ####################################################

  #-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  $ sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart # 重启网络

  方式3:PPPoE宽带拨号配置

  首次拨号:

  应用程序–系统工具–终端  打开一终端,输入命令:

  sudo pppoeconf

  系统开始搜索所有网络接口上的adsl modem,一步步的yes过来。

  │ Please enter the username which you usually need for │

  │ the PPP login to your provider in the input box below. │

  │ If you wish to see the help screen, delete the │

  │ username and press OK. │

  输入你的宽带帐号。

  输入密码。

  tip:如果是河南网通提供的PPPoE宽带帐号,此处输入的是加密后的用户名

  Would you like to add these addresses automatically to the list of nameservers

  in your local /etc/resolv.conf file? (recommended)

  是否自动获得DNS,选择是。

  Should pppoe clamp MSS at 1452 bytes? If unsure, say yes.

  数据包长度的设置,如果跟我一样不确定,选择是

  Your PPPD is configured now. Would you like to start the connection at

  boot time?

  是否启动时自动激活ADSL? 各位看着办吧。
      以后,要手工拨号,打开终端,输入命令:

  sudo pon dsl-provider

  一般情况下,一次拨通后以后登陆ubuntu都会自动拨通上网的了,不用每次都输入命令拨号。

  手工断线:

  sudo poff

  查看连接情况:

  plog 和 ifconfig ppp0

  ifconfig ppp0 可查询本机的上网IP。

  方式4:通过无线局域网接入互联网

  要求安装有无线局域网卡并已驱动

  1.插入无线网卡

  查看一下网络设置,看看是否多出来了两个设备

  $ ifconfig

  eth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:24:7e:14:a9:a8

  inet6 addr: fe80::224:7eff:fe14:a9a8/64 Scope:Link

  UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1

  RX packets:11998024 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

  TX packets:13667166 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

  collisions:0 txqueuelen:100

  RX bytes:1069420740 (1.0 GB) TX bytes:3776606487 (3.7 GB)

  Memory:fc200000-fc220000

  eth0:avahi Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:24:7e:14:a9:a8

  inet addr:169.254.7.73 Bcast:169.254.255.255 Mask:255.255.0.0

  UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1

  Memory:fc200000-fc220000

  lo Link encap:Local Loopback

  inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0

  inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host

  UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1

  RX packets:66657 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

  TX packets:66657 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

  collisions:0 txqueuelen:0

  RX bytes:6372151 (6.3 MB) TX bytes:6372151 (6.3 MB)

  ppp0 Link encap:Point-to-Point Protocol

  inet addr:123.10.130.147 P-t-P:123.10.128.1 Mask:255.255.255.255

  UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING NOARP MULTICAST MTU:1492 Metric:1

  RX packets:149828 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

  TX packets:122796 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

  collisions:0 txqueuelen:3

  RX bytes:150170347 (150.1 MB) TX bytes:16349467 (16.3 MB)

  wlan0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:22:fa:94:48:56

  UP BROADCAST MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1

  RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

  TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

  collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000

  RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

  wmaster0 Link encap:UNSPEC HWaddr 00-22-FA-94-48-56-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-00-

  00-00

  UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1

  RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0

  TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0

  collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000

  RX bytes:0 (0.0 B) TX bytes:0 (0.0 B)

  只要看见eth0就说明网卡设备设别出来了,eth0就是无线网卡设备的名字了,至于其他,暂不研究。

  2.确认无线网卡的型号

  $ lspci

  ......

  00:19.0 Ethernet controller: Intel Corporation 82567LM Gigabit Network

  Connection (rev 03)

  ......

  上面的Intel Corporation 82567LM Gigabit Network Connection (rev 03)就是无线网卡芯片

  的型号了。
      3.打开无线网卡电源

  $ sudo iwconfig eth0 txpower on

  4.检索区域内的无线网络

  $ iwlist eth0 scan

  eth0 Scan completed :

  Cell 01 - Address: 00:1D:0F:4D:8B:E4

  ESSID:"TP-LINK"

  Mode:Master

  Frequency:2.437 GHz (Channel 6)

  Quality=28/70 Signal level=-67 dBm Noise level=-95 dBm

  Encryption key:off

  Bit Rates:1 Mb/s; 2 Mb/s; 5.5 Mb/s; 11 Mb/s; 6 Mb/s

  12 Mb/s; 24 Mb/s; 36 Mb/s; 9 Mb/s; 18 Mb/s

  48 Mb/s; 54 Mb/s

  Extra:bcn_int=100

  Extra:ath_ie=dd0900037f01010008ff7f

  Cell 02 - Address: 00:21:27:3A:37:0A

  ESSID:"TP-LINK"

  Mode:Master

  Frequency:2.437 GHz (Channel 6)

  Quality=12/70 Signal level=-83 dBm Noise level=-95 dBm

  Encryption key:on

  Bit Rates:1 Mb/s; 2 Mb/s; 5.5 Mb/s; 11 Mb/s; 6 Mb/s

  12 Mb/s; 24 Mb/s; 36 Mb/s; 9 Mb/s; 18 Mb/s

  48 Mb/s; 54 Mb/s

  Extra:bcn_int=100

  Extra:ath_ie=dd0900037f01010008ff7f

  Cell 03 - Address: 00:18:39:A6:98:E2

  ESSID:"linksys"

  Mode:Master

  Frequency:2.437 GHz (Channel 6)

  Quality=3/70 Signal level=-92 dBm Noise level=-95 dBm

  Encryption key:on

  Bit Rates:1 Mb/s; 2 Mb/s; 5.5 Mb/s; 11 Mb/s; 6 Mb/s

  9 Mb/s; 12 Mb/s; 18 Mb/s; 24 Mb/s; 36 Mb/s

  48 Mb/s; 54 Mb/s

  Extra:bcn_int=100

  IE: WPA Version 1

  Group Cipher : CCMP

  Pairwise Ciphers (1) : CCMP

  Authentication Suites (1) : PSK

  我附近有三个无线AP,ESSID所标记的就是无线AP的名字了,其中有两个无线AP都叫做 TP-LINK,另一个叫

  linksys,记下这几个无线AP的名字,一会得挨个试。

  5.连接无线AP

  $ sudo iwconfig ath0 essid "linksys"

  $ ifconfig

  不管连上还是连不上都不会给出任何提示,到底连没连上还需要使用命令查看一下才行

  $ iwconfig eth0

  eth0 IEEE 802.11g ESSID:"linksys" Nickname:""

  Mode:Managed Frequency:2.462 GHz Access Point: Not-Associated

  Bit Rate:0 kb/s Tx-Power:18 dBm Sensitivity=1/1

  Retry:off RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off

  Power Management:off

  Link Quality=0/70 Signal level=-95 dBm Noise level=-95 dBm

  Rx invalid nwid:8172 Rx invalid crypt:0 Rx invalid frag:0

  Tx excessive retries:0 Invalid misc:0 Missed beacon:0

  上面的黑体字的部分说明没有连接成功,没关系再换一个就是了。

  $ sudo iwconfig eth0 essid "TP-LINK"

  $ ifconfig

  执行后再查看一下接入状态

  $ iwconfig eth0

  eth0 IEEE 802.11g ESSID:"TP-LINK" Nickname:""

  Mode:Managed Frequency:2.437 GHz Access Point: 00:1D:0F:4D:8B:E4

  Bit Rate:36 Mb/s Tx-Power:18 dBm Sensitivity=1/1

  Retry:off RTS thr:off Fragment thr:off

  Power Management:off

  Link Quality=26/70 Signal level=-69 dBm Noise level=-95 dBm

  Rx invalid nwid:8268 Rx invalid crypt:0 Rx invalid frag:0

  Tx excessive retries:0 Invalid misc:0 Missed beacon:0

  ok,总算是连上了。

  注意:如果连接AP需要密码,而你确实也知道AP的密码,那么可以用下面的办法连接

  假设密码是 123456789,密码需要四位一组用”-“分开。

  $ sudo iwconfig ath0 essid "TP-LINK" key 1234-5678-9

  6.启用无线网卡

  $ sudo ifconfig ath0 up

  7.设置无线网卡采用dhcp方式自动获取ip

  $ sudo dhclient ath0

  Internet Systems Consortium DHCP Client V3.0.6

  Copyright 2004-2007 Internet Systems Consortium.

  All rights reserved.

  For info, please visit http://www.isc.org/sw/dhcp/

  wifi0: unknown hardware address type 801

  wifi0: unknown hardware address type 801

  Listening on LPF/ath0/00:19:e0:85:73:70

  Sending on LPF/ath0/00:19:e0:85:73:70

  Sending on Socket/fallback

  DHCPDISCOVER on ath0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 6

  DHCPOFFER of 192.168.1.104 from 192.168.1.1

  DHCPREQUEST of 192.168.1.104 on ath0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67

  DHCPACK of 192.168.1.104 from 192.168.1.1

  bound to 192.168.1.104 -- renewal in 3125 seconds.

  现在就可以拔掉网线,使用无线网卡上网了。

  8.断开网络

  如果需要断开网络,可以使用下面的命令

  $ sudo ifconfig ath0 down
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